Turkestan - Central Asia.

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Eurasia, the largest continent of the Earth in the northern hemisphere (part of the islands are located in the southern hemisphere). 54,9 million. sq. km, populated with 4,1 billion people (1993). Eurasia consists of the parts of the World - Europe and Asia. It is washed by the North Arctic, Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans and their seas; area of islands is about 2,75 million. the sq. km. European coast are more partitioned than Asian.

Europe, the part of the World (about 11,5 million. square kilometer), that forms the continent Eurasia together with Asia. It is washed by Atlantic and by Arctic Oceans and their seas. Total area of islands is approximately 730 thousand sq. km. Biggest peninsulas: Kola, Scandinavian, Pyrenean, Apennine, Balkan. Average altitude is approximately 300 m, maximal - 4807 m (Mont Blanc). Plains are predominated (biggest - Eastern European, Central-European, middle- and lower-Danube, Parisian basin), mountains occupy of about 17% of territory (main - Alps, the Carpathians, the Pyrenees, the Apennines, the Urals, the mountain of Scandinavian and Balkan peninsulas). Active volcanoes are in Iceland and Mediterranean.
The temperate climate is on the bigger part of the area (oceanic - in the West, in the East - continental with the snowy and frosty winter), on the northern islands - sub Arctic and Arctic, in South Europe - Mediterranean. Ice formation located in Arctic islands, in Iceland, Scandinavian mountains, the Alps (total area is more than 118 thousand square kilometers). Main rivers: Volga (3530 km), Danube, Dnepr, Don, Pechora, northern Dvina, Rhine, Vistula, Elbe, Odra, Rhone, the Loire, Takho. Large lakes: Ladoga, Onega, Chudskoye, Venern, Balaton, Geneva.
There are Arctic deserts and the tundra on the Arctic islands and along the coast of Arctic Ocean, forest-tundra transition area, taiga, mixed and broad-leaved forests, wooded plain, steppe, subtropical Mediterranean forests and bushes - to south; on the southeast - semi-desert. Population of Europe is of 728 mln. people (1993). Countries located In Europe - Austria, Albania, Andorra, Belorussia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vatican, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Iceland, Spain, Italy, part of Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Lichtenstein, Luxemburg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldavia, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation (about 2/3 territories of Europe), Rumania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, part of Turkey, Ukraine, Finland, France, Croatia, Czech, Switzerland, Sweden, Estonia, Yugoslavia (including Serbia and Montenegro).


Asia is the biggest part of the World (about 43,4 million. square kilometer), and together with Europe forms  the continent of Eurasia. The bound between Asia and Europe is passed usually through the Urals (via ridge or its eastern foot, the rivers Emba, Kuma, Manych, on the axial watershed of the large Caucasus, to Caspian, Azov, Black and Marble seas, through Bosphorus the Dardanelles straits). Asia is contiguous with Africa over Suez isthmus, and is parted from North America via Bering strait. It is washed by the North Arctic, Pacific and Indian oceans and their outlying seas, and also by intra-mainland seas of Atlantic Ocean. The area of islands is more than 2 millions. sq. km. Average altitude is 950 m, greatest - 8848 m (Chomolungma, the highest point of the Earth). Mountains and plateaus occupy about 3/4 territories. Main mountain systems: Himalayas, Karakorum, Pamirs, Tien Shan, Hindu Kush, Kun'lun', Big Caucasus, Altai, Sayany, Verkhoyanskiy and Chersky ridges. Biggest uplands: Tibetan, Iranian, Armenian, Minor-Asian, Stanovoe, Koryakskoye. Plateaus: Central Siberian, Arabian peninsula, Dekanskoye. The largest plains: Western Siberian, Turanian, Great Chinese, Iind-Gangs, Mesopotamian. There are many active volcanoes located in Kamchatka, islands of East Asia and Malay archipelago, high seismicity.
Climate is varied from Arctic on the north and continental that is moderated in East Siberia to the equatorial in Indonesian islands. The climate is monsoon in East and South Asia, in the plains of the Central, Middle and West Asia - desert and semiarid. In the highest mountains of the Middle and Central Asia, in the Himalayas, on the Arctic islands is developed the ice formation (118,4 thousand square kilometers). Large areas, mainly in North and Eastern Siberia (about 11 million. square kilometer), are occupied with the permafrost. Main: Ob', Irtysh, the Yenisey, Lena (basin of Arctic Ocean, the large part of the year they are covered with ice); Amur, Hwang Ho, Yangtze (longest in Asia, 5800 km), Sitszyan, the Mekong (Pacific area); Ind, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Saluin, Shut-al'-Arab (basin of the Indian Ocean). There is large area of basins of internal drain (basins of Caspian and Aral Seas, many regions of Central Asia and Middle East). Large lakes: Baykal, Balkhash, Issyk-Kul', Vans, Urmiya, Khanka, Kukunor, Poyankwo, Duntinkwo, Taykhu, Tonlesap.
Arctic deserts and the tundras are located from the Arctic islands and along the coast of Arctic Ocean and framed from the south by the narrow strip of forest-tundra transition area, south - taiga (predominantly dark-coniferous in the West and light-coniferous in the East), which is interchanged to the south by the mixed and broad-leaved forests, by wooded plains and by steppes. Semi-deserts and deserts are especially well expressed in the Arabian peninsula (Nefud, Rub- ale -Hali), in the internal regions of the Iranian upland (Deshte-Lut, Deshte-Kevir, etc.), in Middle and Central Asia (Karakumy, Kyzyl Kum, the Gobi, Takla- it is dipped), in South Asia (containers). In the subtropics of West Asia - Mediterranean vegetation; in East Asia - mixed monsoon and broad-leaved forests. In the tropical latitudes of East and South Asia - monsoon deciduous forests and  savanna, on the windward slopes of mountains - evergreen forests. In the equatorial latitudes (mainly in Indonesia) the multistage swampy forests - hylaea. In the territory of Asia - large part of the Russian Federation, and also Azerbaijan, Armenia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bahrain, Bruney, Butane, Vietnam, Georgia, part of Egypt, Israel, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Yemen, the large part of Kazakhstan, Cambodia, Qatar, Cyprus, Kyrghizia, China,  Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldivian republic, Mongolia, M'yanma, Nepal, United Arab emirates, Oman, Pakistan, Palestinian territories (Western shore r. Jordan throttle control), Korea, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Syria, Tadjikistan, Thailand, Turkmenia, large part of Turkey, Philippines, Shri-Lanka, Japan. The population of Asia is more than 3,2 billion people (1990). 


Geographical zoning of Asia

1. West Siberia

2. East Siberia

3. Far East

4. Middle Asia

5. Central Asia

6. East Asia

7. West

8. South Asia

9. South-East Asia


West Siberia, the part of Siberia located  between the Urals in the West and Yenisey river in the East. About 3 million. sq. km. It is occupied mainly with Western Siberian plain; on the southeast - mountain of the Altay, Salair and Kuznetsk Alatau.

East Siberia is the eastern part of Siberia from the Yenisey to the ridges of Pacific Ocean watershed. Area is 7,2 million. sq. km. Large part is occupied with Central Siberian plateau. On the north - the strip of lowlands, in the south - the South Siberia mountain, in the east Verkhoyanskiy ridge -Kolymskoe upland. Siberia, large part of the Asian territory of the Russian Federation, extends from the Urals in the West to the mountain ranges of Pacific Ocean watershed in the east and from it is coast Arctic Ocean on the north to the hilly steppes of Kazakhstan and boundary with the Mongolia in the south. Area is approximately 10 million. square kilometer. West Siberia and East Siberia are separated in natural sense, within bounds of which are located Western Siberian plain, Central Siberian plateau, Sayan, Tuva mountains, Baikal region, Transbaykal) and the system of mountain ranges on the northeast of Siberia, which framed with Verkhoyanskiy ridge and the Kolymskiy upland. Climate is inclement mainly, sharply continental. Mean temperatures of January from -16 C in the south of Western Siberian plain to -48 C in the East of Yakutiya, where is located one of the cold poles of the northern hemisphere. The majorities of Siberia rivers including the biggest Ob' with Irtysh, Yenisey and Lena, belong to the basins of seas of Arctic Ocean. Large lakes: Baykal, Taymyr. The large part of Siberia is occupied with tundra and taiga; in the south - wooded plain and steppe. Preserves, national parks. Layers of minerals (coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, diamonds, gold, polymetals, graphite, etc.).

Far East is a territory in the East of Asia, in which the eastern part of the Russian Federation (Russian Far East), the eastern part of the territory of China, Korea and North Korea, Japan are located; the Philippines sometimes are carried to the Far East.

Middle Asia, is the area located in intra-mainland Asia, which contains Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Tadjikistan and Turkmenia republics. Area of South Kazakhstan, to the South from the Aral- Irtysh watershed (and also North Kazakhstan) are among to Middle Asia also.

Central Asia, is natural country, which covers intra-mainland Asia, in the bounds of China and Mongolia. About 6 million. the sq. km of plateau and plain. 2 basic tiers formed, the medium altitude of 500-1500 m (Gobi, Alashan', Ordos, Dzungarskiy and Tarimskiy plains) and 4000-4500 m (Tibetan upland), divided or framed by the high ridges of Tien Shan, Kun'lun, Nan'shan, Karakorum, Gandisyshan and other. Climate is sharply continental, sediments 50-200 mm in the plains, to 500-1000  in the mountains mm per year. Large part of the territory is a region of internal drain. Predominate semi-deserts and deserts (in the Tibetan upland - cold deserts).

East Asia, is the part of Asia, which sides with Pacific Ocean in that moderated, subtropical and tropical zones located between 20 and 60 South latitude. Combination of mountains with the wide plains. Climate is monsoon. Natural vegetation - the broad-leaved and mixed forests on the North, subtropical and tropical in the South. Includes the eastern regions of the Russian Federation and China, Japan, Korea and North Korea.

West Asia (Front Asia) is the part of Asia, which covers peninsula Asia Minor, Armenian and the large part of the Iranian upland, Arabian peninsula, Mesopotamian lowland and the regions, which are sided to the East the Mediterranean (including Cyprus island). About 7,5 million. sq. km. Mountains and plateaus are predominate; deserts, semi-deserts, dry steppes are widespread.

South Asia is the natural region in Asia, which covers Hindustan peninsula with the sided islands, Ind-Gang plain and its mountain framing. Area is 5,1 millions. sq. km. Tropical forests, savanna, sections of deserts in the West. Tropical agriculture (mainly in the plains). On the territory of South Asia are located Bangladesh, Butane, India, Maldivian, Nepal, Pakistan, Shri-Lanka. Sometimes the countries of southeastern Asia are included in the South Asia.


Southeastern Asia is the natural region in Asia, which includes Indochina peninsula, Malay archipelago and the sided territories. 4,5 million. sq. km. Population is 463 mln. people (1993). Relief is hilly and plains. Tropical forests and savanna. Southeastern Asia includes Bruney, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, M'yanma, Singapore, Thailand, frequently - the Philippines. Sometimes the countries of southeastern Asia are included in the South Asia.


Marco Polo 2005
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